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Medial side knee injuries: simplifying the controversies: current concepts
  1. David Figueroa1,
  2. Rodrigo Guiloff1,
  3. Alex Vaisman1,
  4. Francisco Figueroa1,
  5. Robert C Schenck, Jr2
  1. 1 Departamento Ortopedia y Traumatologia, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile
  2. 2 Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, The University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA
  1. Correspondence to Dr Rodrigo Guiloff, Departamento Ortopedia y Traumatologia, Facultad de Medicina Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago, Chile; rguiloff{at}


Injuries to the medial side of the knee (MSK) are the most common knee ligament lesions. Historically, these injuries have been treated conservatively; however, a better understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the different structures of the MSK have resulted in diverse and controversial opinions about the ideal management of these lesions. A cautious analysis should be done in nomenclature because the same surgical technique principles have been differently named in the literature. The diagnostic process of MSK injuries must involve a critical thinking process to precise those lesions that imply an imminent risk of healing failure. This review article provides an evidence and clinical-based clarification of the controversies regarding injuries to the MSK and proposes an evidence-based algorithm for their management.

  • knee
  • ligament
  • repair / reconstruction
  • evidence based medicine
  • instability

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  • Collaborators Sahar Freedman, Patricio Caro and Andrea Krauss.

  • Contributors DF: planification, conduction, writing and critical review. RG: planification, conduction, writing, critical review and illustrations. AV: writing and critical review. FF: writing and critical review. RCS: writing and critical review.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement All data relevant to the study are included in the article

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