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State of the Art
Ankle tendoscopy: state of the art
  1. Helder Pereira1,
  2. Gwendolyn Vuurberg2,
  3. James Stone3,
  4. Tun Hing Lui4
  1. 1Ripoll y De Prado Sports Clinic: Murcia-Madrid FIFA Medical Centre of Excellence, Orthopedic Department of Póvoa de Varzim- Vila do Conde Central Hospital, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal
  2. 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Academic Center for Evidence-Based Sports Medicine, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  3. 3Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA
  4. 4Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, North District Hospital, Hong Kong, China
  1. Correspondence to Helder Pereira, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Póvoa de Varzim - Vila do Conde Central Hospital, Largo da Misericórdio, Póvoa de Varzim, Porto, Portugal; helderduartepereira{at}


Tendon disorders may be caused by a wide range of pathologies, including (partial) tendon tears, tendinitis, tendinosis and tenosynovitis. Endoscopic techniques have been developed to address these pathologies and have been optimised over the years. Currently, these techniques are mainly used to address disorders of the Achilles tendon, flexor hallucis longus (FHL) tendon, peroneal tendons and the posterior tibial tendon. It is important to perform a thorough history and physical examination in order to define symptom intensity and factors that exacerbate symptoms, and to define the site of maximal local tenderness. This is in order to decide on appropriate options for assessment and treatment. Tendoscopy is currently accepted as a useful therapeutic alternative in cases of failed conservative treatment. The main accepted indications for tendoscopy include FHL, Achilles and peroneal pathology, posterior tibial tendinopathy, and retrocalcaneal bursitis. Complication rates for the procedure are low despite the proximity of neurovascular structures, and tendoscopy is regarded as a safe and effective procedure in the treatment of tendon pathology.

  • ankle
  • tendoscopy
  • peroneal tendon
  • flexor hallucis longus

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  • Contributors Each of the authors has contributed to this study equally.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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