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Biomaterials for meniscus and cartilage in knee surgery: state of the art
  1. Louis Kluyskens1,2,
  2. Pedro Debieux3,4,
  3. Keng Lin Wong5,6,
  4. Aaron J Krych2,
  5. Daniel B F Saris2,7
  1. 1Orthopedics, AZ Monica Antwerpen, Antwerpen, Belgium
  2. 2Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, Minnesota, USA
  3. 3Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  4. 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil
  5. 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Sengkang General Hospital, Singapore
  6. 6Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, National University of Singapore, Singapore
  7. 7Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, Netherlands
  1. Correspondence to Dr Louis Kluyskens, Orthopedics, AZ Monica Antwerpen, Antwerpen, Belgium; louiskluyskens{at}; Dr Daniel B F Saris, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Mayo Clinic Rochester, Rochester, MN 55901, USA; saris.daniel{at}


Meniscus and cartilage injuries of the knee joint lead to cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis (OA). The research on biomaterials and artificial implants as substitutes in reconstruction and regeneration has become a main international focus in order to solve clinical problems such as irreparable meniscus injury, postmeniscectomy syndrome, osteochondral lesions and generalised chronic OA. In this review, we provide a summary of biomaterials currently used in clinical practice as well as state-of-the-art tissue engineering strategies and technologies that are developed for articular cartilage and meniscus repair and regeneration. The literature was reviewed over the last 5 years on clinically used meniscus and cartilage repair biomaterials, such as Collagen Meniscal Implant, Actifit, NUsurface, TruFit, Agili-C and MaioRegen. There are clinical advantages for these biomaterials and the application of these treatment options should be considered individually. Standardised evaluation protocols are needed for biological and mechanical assessment and comparison between different scaffolds, and long-term randomised independent clinical trials with large study numbers are needed to provide more insight into the use of these biomaterials. Surgeons should become familiar and stay up to date with evolving repair options to improve their armamentarium for meniscal and cartilage defects.

  • knee
  • meniscus
  • cartilage
  • reconstructive surgical procedures
  • sports medicine

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  • Contributors LK: conceptualisation, investigation, writing. PD: review and editing. FKLW: review and editing. AJK: review and editing. DBFS: conceptualisation, review and editing.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Provenance and peer review Commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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