Table 3

Overview and characteristics of relevant studies on the prevention of ankle sprains

ReferenceDesignFollow-up periodNGender (% M); age (year, mean(±SD), [range]) (IG/CG)Sport populationSportsSingle-component or multicomponentInterventionSport-specific or generic exercisesIndividual or group based (supervised)Injury definition
Bahr et al74Pretest–post-test2 seasons81452; 23.2 (4.2) M/22.4 (4.3) FGeneralVolleyballMultiInjury-prevention programme during warm-upGenericGroup (coach)Ankle sprains (time loss)
Cumps et al71CT (cluster)1 season5073/63; 17.7 (3.9)/18.0 (2.7)GeneralBasketballSingleBT programme during warm-upSport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle sprains (time loss)
Eils et al47RCT (cluster)1 season17260/59; 22.6 (6.3)/25.5 (7.2)GeneralBasketballSingleBT programme during trainingSport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle injuries (time loss)
Emery et al48RCT (cluster)6 months12050; [14–19]GeneralDiverse*MultiHome-based BT programme, including core stabilisationGenericIndividual (unsupervised)Ankle sprains (medically treated or time loss)
Emery et al49RCT (cluster)1 year92049/52; [12–18]GeneralBasketballSingleBT programme during warm-up, and a home-based BT programmeSport-specificBoth (coach)Ankle sprains (medically treated or time loss)
Emery and Meeuwisse50RCT (cluster)1 year74458/31; [13–18]GeneralIndoor soccerMultiInjury-prevention programme during warm-up, and a home-based BT programmeSport-specificBoth (coach)Ankle sprains (medically treated or time loss)
Engebretsen et al51RCT1 season508100; NSAthletes with previous ankle sprain or reduced functionSoccerSingleBT programmeGenericIndividual (unsupervised)Ankle sprains (time loss)
Grooms et al75Pretest–post-test1 season41100; 20.1 (2.0)GeneralSoccerMultiF-Marc 11+ (warm-up programme)Sport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle sprains (medically treated or time loss)
Holme et al52RCT1 year7159/64; 25.5 (3.8)/27.4 (4.6)Athletes with acute ankle sprain (medically treated)DiverseSingleRehabilitative BT programmeGenericGroup (physiotherapist)Recurrent ankle sprains
Hupperets et al53RCT1 year52253/52; 28.6 (11.8)/ 28.0 (11.6)Athletes with previous ankle sprainDiverseSingleHome-based BT programmeGenericIndividual (unsupervised)Recurrent ankle sprains (self-reported, time loss, leading to cost)
LaBella et al54RCT (cluster)1 season14920; 16.2 (1.1)/16.2 (1.5)GeneralSoccer BasketballMultiInjury-preventive programme during warm-upGenericGroup (coach)Non-contact ankle sprains (time loss)
Longo et al55RCT (cluster)1 season121100; 13.5 (2.3)/15.2 (4.6)GeneralBasketballMultiF-Marc 11+ (warm-up programme)Sport-specific (soccer)Group (coach)Ankle injuries
Malliou et al72CT (cluster)1 season100NS; 16.7 (0.5)/16.9 (0.7)GeneralSoccerSingleBT programmeSport-specificNSAnkle sprains (time loss)
McGuine and Keene56RCT (cluster)NS76533/30; 16.6 (1.1)/16.4 (1.2)GeneralSoccer BasketballSingleBT programmeSport-specificGroup (NS)Ankle sprains (time loss)
McHugh et al76Pretest–post-test3 seasons125NS; [15–18]GeneralAmerican footballSingleBT programme (during weight training)NSGroup (coach)Ankle sprains (time loss)
Mohammadi57RCT1 season80100; 24.6 (2.6)Athletes with previous ankle sprainSoccerSingleHome-based BT trainingGenericIndividual (unsupervised)Recurrent ankle sprains
Olsen et al58RCT (cluster)1 season183716/11; 16.3 (0.6)/16.2 (0.6)GeneralHandballMultiInjury prevention programme during warm-upSport-specificGroup (coach)Acute ankle injuries (medically treated or time loss)
Owoeye et al59RCT (cluster)1 season416100; 17.8 (0.94)/ 17.5 (1.1)GeneralSoccerMultiF-Marc 11+ (warm-up programme)Sport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle injuries (time loss)
Parkkari et al60RCT (cluster)6 months968100; 19 [18–28]GeneralDiverse†MultiInjury prevention programmeGenericBoth (instructor)Ankle injuries (medically treated)
Pasanen et al61RCT (cluster)1 season4570; 24.2 (5.0)/23.3 (4.8)GeneralFloorballMultiInjury-prevention programme during training, and at homeSport-specificBoth (coach)Non-contact ankle sprains (time loss)
Petersen et al73CT (cluster)1 season2760; adultsGeneralHandballMultiInjury-prevention programmeSport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle sprains (time loss)
Söderman et al62RCT (cluster)1 season1400; 20.4 (4.6)/20.5 (5.4)GeneralSoccerSingleHome-based BT programmeGenericIndividual (unsupervised)Traumatic ankle sprains (time loss)
Soligard et al63RCT (cluster)1 season18920; 15.4 (0.7)GeneralSoccerMultiF-Marc 11+ (warm-up programme)Sport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle injuries (time loss)
Steffen et al64RCT (cluster)1 season20200; 15.4 (0.8)GeneralSoccerMultiF-Marc 11 (warm-up programme)Sport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle injuries; recurrent ankle sprains (time loss)
Tropp et al65RCT (cluster)6 months236100; NSAthletes with previous ankle sprain or reduced function (IG); general (CG)SoccerSingleBT programmeGenericNSRecurrent ankle sprains (time loss)
van Beijsterveldt et al.66RCT (cluster)1 season456100; 24.4 (4.1)/25.1 (4.3)GeneralSoccerMultiF-Marc 11 (warm-up programme)Sport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle injuries (medically treated or time loss)
van Rijn et al.67RCT1 year10237.0 (11.9); [18–60]Athletes with acute ankle sprain (medically treated)NSMultiRehabilitative training programme (first 3 months postinjury)GenericIndividual (physiotherapist)Recurrent ankle sprains
Verhagen et al68RCT1 season112745/41; 24.4 (2.8)/24.2 (2.5)GeneralVolleyballSingleBT programme during warm-upGenericGroup (coach)Ankle sprains (time loss)
Wedderkopp et al69RCT (cluster)1 season2370; [16–18]GeneralHandballMultiInjury prevention programmeSport-specificGroup (coach)Ankle sprains (time loss or unable to participate in sports without considerable discomfort)
Wester et al70RCT230 days (±62.9)4813; 25 (7.2)Players with residual symptoms following ankle sprain (medically treated)DiverseSingleRehabilitative BT programme (first 12 weeks postinjury)GenericIndividual (NS)Recurrent ankle sprains
  • *Students from physical education classes.

  • †Military training, including marching, cycling, skiing, orienteering, swimming, drill training, combat training, jogging, team sports and circuit training.

  • BT, balance training; CG, control group; CT, controlled trial; F, female; F-Marc, FIFA Medical Assessment and Research Centre; IG, Intervention group; M, male; NS, not specified; RCT, randomised controlled trial.