Table 5

Relative risk of ankle sprain (NMT vs control) for interventions in participants regardless of injury history (overall), participants with a previous ankle sprain, and participants with no previous ankle sprain

ReferenceDesignQS (%)OverallRecurrent ankle sprainsFirst-time ankle sprains
RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)RR (95% CI)
Bahr et al74Pretest–post-test850.51 (0.32 to 0.81)
Cumps et al71CT810.51 (0.20 to 1.32)
Eils et al47RCT740.37 (0.17 to 0.83)
Emery et al48RCT950.14 (0.02 to 1.13)
Emery et al49RCT1000.71 (0.52 to 0.97)
Emery and Meeuwisse50RCT790.50 (0.26 to 0.93)
Hupperets et al53RCT790.65 (0.49 to 0.87)
LaBella et al54RCT790.42 (0.18 to 1.01)
Longo et al55RCT890.77 (0.13 to 4.42)
Malliou et al72CT690.58 (0.41 to 0.82)
McGuine and Keene56RCT740.62 (0.38 to 1.02)0.72 (0.35 to 1.46)0.55 (0.28 to 1.08)
Mohammadi57RCT740.13 (0.02 to 0.91)
Olsen et al58RCT950.64 (0.40 to 1.03)
Owoeye et al59RCT840.32 (0.16 to 0.64)
Parkkari et al60RCT830.43 (0.24 to 0.75)
Pasanen et al61RCT950.23 (0.11 to 0.50)
Petersen et al73CT690.67 (0.27-1.69)
Söderman et al62RCT681.17 (0.59 to 2.30)
Soligard et al63RCT840.73 (0.49 to 1.08)
Steffen et al64RCT890.94 (0.69 to 1.28)
van Beijsterveldt et al66RCT741.18 (0.80 to 1.73)
van Rijn et al67RCT890.95 (0.52 to 1.73)
Verhagen et al68RCT790.54 (0.34 to 0.85)
Wedderkopp et al69RCT680.30 (0.13 to 0.70)
Total effect estimate
 RR (95% CI)0.59 (0.49 to 0.71)0.69 (0.49 to 0.98)
 χ2 (p value)0.0020.25
 I2 (%)5327
Total studies (n)2141
Studies protective effect (%)48500
  • CT, controlled trial; NMT, neuromuscular training; QS, methodological quality score of included studies; RCT, randomised controlled trial; RR, relative risk.