TableĀ 4

Robotic and computer navigation systems used in UKA33 76 77 80 84

Robotic systemsCharacteristics
Navio Precision Free-Hand Sculptor (PFS) system (Blue Belt Technologies)
Semiactive robotic system
  • Image-free, no preoperative imaging required

  • Robotic arm under direct control of the surgeon

  • Uses optical-based navigation, creating a virtual model of the osseous knee

  • Ability to adjust component position, alignment and soft-tissue balance during procedure

  • Open platform (allows different implant designs)

Stryker/MAKO haptic guided robot (MAKO Surgical Corp)
Semiactive tactile robotic system
  • Preoperative imaging required (CT scan)

  • Robotic arm under direct control of the surgeon

  • Real-time tactile feedback intraoperatively

  • Ability to adjust component position, alignment and soft-tissue balance during procedure

  • Closed platform (implant specific)

Computer navigation systems Characteristics
Ci Navigation (Ci-Navigation-System, DePuy I-Orthopaedics, Munich, Germany)
  • Image-free navigation system

  • Optical tracking unit that detects reflecting marker spheres by an infrared camera

  • Controlled by a draped, touch-screen monitor

  • Implant specific (Presentation, DePuy)

  • Specific fine adjustable cutting devices

Orthopilot (Orthopilot, Aesculap AG, Tuttlingen, Germany)
  • Image-free system

  • Allows different implant designs

  • Relative motion of four infrared localisers calculate the centre of rotation

  • Bony resection is performed with a classical saw

Stryker navigation (Stryker Navigation, Kalamazoo, Michigan, USA)
  • Image-free system

  • Allows different implant designs

  • Infrared stereoscopic camera to track skeletal reference frames

Treon plus (Medtronic)
  • Image-free navigation system

  • Dynamic tracking of the instruments relative to the patient's position allowed hands-free alignment of the resection guides

  • UKA, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.