Table 4

Summary of key biomarkers

BiomarkerSourceStudy reportedKey findings
COMPPlasmaBedi et al1024% higher COMP (P=0.04) in FAI group compared with control
CRPPlasmaBedi et al10276% higher CRP (P<0.001) in FAI group compared with control
IL-1βArticular cartilageChinzei et al11
Fukushima19
mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with OA hips (P<0.01)
mRNA expression higher in greater stages of synovitis (P<0.05)
mRNA highest in cartilage compared with synovium and labrum (P<0.01)
IL-8Articular cartilageChinzei et al11
Hashimoto et al.12
mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with OA hips (P<0.01)
mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with controls (P<0.05)
mRNA highest in cartilage compared with synovium and labrum (P<0.01)
ADAMTS-4Articular cartilageChinzei et al11
Hashimoto et al12
Fukushima19
mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with OA hips (P<0.01)
mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with controls (P<0.05)
mRNA expression significant positive correlation with VAS pain score and significant negative correlation with mHHS score
MMP-13Articular cartilageChinzei et al11mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with OA hips (P<0.01)
COL2A1Articular cartilageChinzei et al11
Hashimoto et al12
mRNA expression higher in OA hips compared with FAI hips (P<0.01)
mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with controls (P<0.05)
ACANArticular cartilageChinzei et al11
Hashimoto et al12
Conflicting results:
1. mRNA expression higher in OA hips compared with FAI hips (P<0.01)
2. mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with controls, OA hips (P<0.05)
CXCL3Articular cartilageHashimoto et al12mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with controls (P<0.05)
CXCL6Articular cartilageHashimoto et al12mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with controls (P<0.05)
CCL3L1Articular cartilageHashimoto et al12mRNA expression higher in FAI hips compared with controls (P<0.05) mRNA expression of higher in FAI hips compared with OA hips (P<0.05)
FACSynovial fluidAbrams et al16FAC higher in FAI, non-OA group compared with those with FAI and OA (P<0.001)
  • ACAN, aggrecan; ADAMTS-4, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-4; CCL3L1, chemokine (C-C) motif ligand 3-like 1; COL2A1, collagen type II alpha 1; COMP, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein; CRP, C reactive protein; CXCL3, chemokine (C-X-C) motif ligand 3; CXCL6, chemokine (C-X-C) motif ligand 6; FAC, fibronectin–aggrecan complex; FAI, femoroacetabular impingement; IL-1β, interleukin-1 beta; IL-8, interleukin-8; mHHS, modified Harris Hip Score; MMP-3, matrix metalloproteinase-3; MMP-13, matrix metalloproteinase-13; OA, osteoarthritis; VAS, visual analogue scale.