Table 4

Alternative cryotherapy study outcome variables and results 

Study (CT used)Outcome variablesResults
Ascensão et al 46 (CWI)DOMS, biochemical markers, performance testsDecrease in quadriceps (24 hours), calf (24 hours) and adductor (30 min) DOMS with CWI.Decreased CK (24 hours), myoglobin (30 min) and CRP (30 min and 24 hours) following CWI.
Elias et al 47 (CWI)Perceived measures, jump performance, repeat sprint testingPerceived muscle soreness and fatigue: CWI and CWT vs control 24 hours postmatch was lower; CWI was lower than control at 1 hour postexercise; CWI was lower vs CWT at 1 and 24 hours postexercise.Repeat sprint ability remained slower at 24 hours postexercise for control and CWT, but not CWI.CWI and CWT were more effective at restoring jump performance than control at 24 hours postexercise.
Webb et al 48 (CWI)PMS, countermovement JH, CKBoth CWT and CWI had significantly reduced PMS. CWT is likely to have clear recovery benefits on PMS vs CWI 18 hours postexercise.CWT is likely to have a clear beneficial effect on JH over control immediately after and 24 hours following exercise. CWI has beneficial recovery on JH 24 hours postexercise vs control. CWT is very likely to be effective in regenerating JH in the first 18 hours postexercise compared with CWI.CWT is likely to have clear beneficial recovery on CK immediately and >18 hours postexercise vs control. CWI is likely to have beneficial recovery on CK levels >18 hours postexercise vs control. CWT is likely to have a more beneficial recovery than CWI immediately after and >18 hours postexercise.
Doeringer et al 45 (CWI)DOMS, flexibility, CMJ, shuttle, 10 m dashSpeed increased 5.3% with CWI, compared with decrease of 5% in control.DOMS decreased by 2.3 points with CWI from pre-CT to post-CT, but increased in all controls.No differences seen in CMJ, flexibility or shuttle run.
  • CK, creatine kinase; CMJ , countermovement jump; CRP, C reactive protein; CT, cryotherapy; CWI, cold water immersion (regional); CWT, contrast water therapy; DOMS, delayed onset muscle soreness; JH, jump height; PMS, perceptual muscle soreness; WBC, whole body cryotherapy (whole body).