Table 5

Devices for quantitative assessment of knee joint laxity

KT-1000/2000The majority of studies show at least a fair reproducibility (inter-tester ICC range 0.14–0.92, intra-tester ICC range 0.47–0.95)76 Measure anterior tibial displacement in mm
Different reliability depending on examiner experience76
Dependent on dominant hand of the examiner118
The maximal manual force testing is the most reliable76
RolimeterThe literature shows an inter-tester correlation ranging between 0.39 and 0.89 and intra-tester ranging between 0.55 and 1.0119 120 Measure anterior tibial displacement in mm
Not as crucial with examiner experience compared with the KT-1000119
Might be easier to apply in the clinical setting compared with the KT-1000 due to the lighter design
At least as reliable as the KT-100076
GNRBSensitivity and specificity for an ACL tear ranging between 62%–92% and 76%–99%, respectively77 121 122
The inter-tester ICC has been reported ranging between 0.220 and 0.424123
Measure anterior tibial displacement in mm
Robotic testing meaning a less examiner-dependent measurement. Several studies reporting the GNRB as reliable or superior to other arthrometers124
Possible to account for patient guarding with hamstring activation77
Pivot AppExcellent inter- and intra-tester reliability reported. Inter-tester ICC 0.95 (95% CI 0.54 to 1.00), intra-tester ICC ranging between 0.91 and 0.99 (95% CI 0.319 to 1.000)88 Lateral tibial translation during the pivot shift test is calculated (in mm) by a software program analysing the movement of three markers placed on the skin during video recording of the pivot shift test using a commercial tablet.
Been proved valid to detect differences between clinically high- and low-grade pivot shift85
KiRaMean intra-rater ICC 0.79. Reproducibility is good to excellent across all different parameters being quantified (minimum, maximum and range of tibial acceleration)125 An inertial sensor system quantifies the tibial acceleration (m/s2) during the pivot shift test. An elastic strap is used to position the sensor on the patient’s leg when executing the pivot-shift test
Has been proved to be valid to detect differences between clinically high- and low-grade pivot shift85
  • ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; ICC, intraclass correlation coefficient.